Righting Citing - Text A

What confusion is created by the citing in the following text?*

Cryptococcal meningitis is a common life-threatening infection in patients with advanced HIV disease. It is a major cause of death from AIDS in Asia and accounted for 13, 17, and 44% of all deaths in three cohorts of HIV-infected patients in Africa (1, 2, 3, 4). For comparison, tuberculosis was identified as the cause in 5, 6, and 13% of deaths in these cohorts (2, 3, 4).


  • 1. Chariyalertsak, S., T. Sirisanthana, O. Saengwonloey, K. Nelson. 2001. Clinical presentation and risk behaviors of patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in Thailand, 1994–1998: regional variation and temporal trends. Clin. Infect. Dis. 32:955.
  • 2. Okongo, M., D. Morgan, B. Mayanja, A. Ross, J. Whitworth. 1998. Causes of death in a rural, population-based human immunodeficiency virus type 1 natural history cohort in Uganda. Int. J. Epidemiol. 27:698.
  • 3. French, N., J. Nakiyingi, L. M. Carpenter, E. Lugada, C. Watera, K. Moi, M. Moore, D. Antvelink, D. Mulder, E. N. Janoff, et al 2000. 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine in HIV-1-infected Ugandan adults: double-blind, randomized and placebo controlled trial. Lancet 355:2106.
  • 4. Corbett, E. L., G. J. Churchyard, S. Charalambos, B. Samb, V. Moloi, T. C. Clayton, A. D. Grant, J. Murray, R. J. Hayes, K. M. De Cock. 2002. Morbidity and mortality in South African gold miners: impact of untreated disease due to human immunodeficiency virus. Clin. Infect. Dis. 34:1251.
*From Siddiqui, AA et al. IFN-gamma at the site of infection determines rate of clearance of infection in cryptococcal meningitis. J. Immunol. 2005; 1746-1750.